Problems of Post-Communism

Submission Guidelines

Problems of Post-Communism receives all manuscript submissions electronically via its ScholarOne Manuscripts site located at ScholarOne Manuscripts allows for rapid submission of original and revised manuscripts, and facilitates the review process and internal communication between authors, editors, and reviewers via a web-based platform. ScholarOne technical support can be accessed at If you have any other requests, please contact Dmitry Gorenburg, Editor, at


Applying these basic style points before sending in the final version of your article will speed up production and be much appreciated by the editorial staff.

1. Use only the Latin alphabet. Transliterate any text in Russian or other languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet according to the Library of Congress system, described at, with the following exceptions. Do not use soft and hard signs, ë (use e), or linking signs over letter pairs such as ts, ia, iu, etc.

As a general rule, personal names should also be rendered using the LoC transliteration system. However, if a Russian or Ukrainian author has published in English or consistently prefers a particular transliteration, use that form instead.

Place names should be given in the form most widely recognized by English-language readers (e.g., Moscow, not Moskva). If there is no standard rendering, the place name should be transliterated using the modified LOC system described above.

For personal and place names in languages that use the Latin alphabet, include diacritics/accent marks.

2. Supply English translations for all titles of books and articles written in a language other than English. The translation should appear in regular roman type in parentheses, following the foreign-language title. If a foreign-language source references transliterated names or works from other languages, take care to provide the correct spelling (e.g., Jean-Jacques Rousseau, not Zhan-Zhak Ruso).

3. Double-check Web site addresses and supply access dates using the form: “Article” (date of article), at, accessed March 16, 2012. If a site address begins with www, we do not need the http:// before the address. If the address does not begin with www, then we do need the http:// to avoid confusion (, but Sites with names that begin with https:// or that require subscriptions for access should not be used in citations. We need the access dates because Web sites change frequently, so the date supplies supporting evidence in cases where pages have disappeared since the author last used the information they contained. Note that PoPC uses the Anglo-American date format (month day, year) in preference to the European format (day month year).

4. Give full first names on first mention for individuals, including authors, mentioned in the text and the notes: Vladimir Putin or Vladimir V. Putin, not V. Putin; Thomas Jefferson or Jefferson, Thomas (in references), not T. Jefferson or Jefferson, T. If full first names are not available, we prefer double initials to single ones: V.V. Putin. After the first mention, the last name is sufficient unless the article discusses more than one individual with the same last name. This usage applies also to political titles: President Dmitry Medvedev, then President Medvedev or Medvedev; President Barack Obama, President Obama or Obama; Prime Minister Evgeny Primakov, Prime Minister Primakov or Primakov.

5. Place note references at the end of sentences and combine your references in such a way that there is only one note per sentence: Kommersant announces that “Dmitry Medvedev will step down,” and Novaia gazeta confirms that Vladimir Putin “will run for a third term” as president in 2012.1 Note 1 then contains references to both the Kommersant and the Novaia gazeta articles.

PoPC uses endnotes in preference to footnotes and does not use Word’s automated footnotes/endnotes. Note references should be indicated with superscripts, with the notes themselves supplied at the end of the text. Please use only italics or underlining, as needed, in formatting the endnotes.

EXAMPLE: The Communist Party of the Russian Federation has expanded in recent years.1 Its leader is Gennadii Ziuganov.


1. Author of source for note 1, Title (Place: Publisher, YEAR), 2 [i.e., page number].

For more examples of note formats, see below.

You may also use author–date references in text and give a list of the references at the back, or a combination of author–date citations/reference list and explanatory notes. But if you combine author–date citations and explanatory notes, please do not then use notes solely to identify the source of a quotation or idea: those references go in the text in parentheses.

If using notes, you may use ibid. to indicate that the source in a note is the same as the single source mentioned in the preceding note. Please do not use op. cit. (instead, give the author’s name and a short title) or idem (repeat the author’s last name). Short titles should contain enough words for clear identification. If the book or article title is five words or less, please give it in its entirety. Otherwise, provide a distinct, coherent phrase: History of the Ottoman Empire, not History.


Preferred Note/Reference Formats


Book: Chingiz Aitmatov, The Day Lasts More Than a Thousand Years, trans. John French (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983), 55–56.


Edited book: Donald Ostrowski and Marshall T. Poe, eds., Portraits of Old Russia: Imagined Lives of Ordinary People, 1300–1725 (Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2011).


Chapter in an edited book: Donald Ostrowski, “Memoir of a Tatar Prince: Ismail ibn Ahmed,” in Portraits of Old Russia: Imagined Lives of Ordinary People, 1300–1725, ed. Ostrowski and Marshall T. Poe (Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 2011), 14–23.


Article: Oliver Johnson, “The Stalin Prize and the Soviet Artist: Status Symbol or Stigma?” Slavic Review 70, no. 4 (2011): 819–43.


Article (Russian): Vladimir Solovev, “Konflikt na Dnestre poprobuiut razmorozit” (Trying to Unfreeze the Dniester Conflict), Kommersant (April 29, 2011), 3.


Article (Web site): “Pridnestrovskaia tamozhnia blokiruet rabotu MMZ” (Transnistrian Customs Block the Activities of the Moldova Steel Works), Lenta PMR (April 27, 2011), at, accessed March 13, 2012.



In Text and Notes (if any)

(Aitmatov 1983, 55–56; Johnson 2011).


In Reference List

Book: Aitmatov, Chingiz. 1983. The Day Lasts More Than a Thousand Years. Translated by John French. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


Edited book: Ostrowski, Donald, and Marshall T. Poe, eds. 2011. Portraits of Old Russia: Imagined Lives of Ordinary People, 1300–1725. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.


Chapter in an edited book: Ostrowski, Donald. 2011. “Memoir of a Tatar Prince: Ismail ibn Ahmed.” In Portraits of Old Russia, ed. Ostrowski and Poe, 14–23.

In the above case, make sure the list includes a full citation for the book.


Article: Johnson, Oliver. 2011. “The Stalin Prize and the Soviet Artist: Status Symbol or Stigma?” Slavic Review 70, no. 4: 819–43.


Article (Russian): Solovev, Vladimir. 2011. “Konflikt na Dnestre poprobuiut razmorozit” (Trying to Unfreeze the Dniester Conflict). Kommersant (April 29, 2011), 3.


Article (Web site): “Pridnestrovskaia tamozhnia blokiruet rabotu MMZ” (Transnistrian Customs Block the Activities of the Moldova Steel Works). 2011. Lenta PMR (April 27), at, accessed March 13, 2012.

Since this article has no listed author, it would be cited in text as (“Pridnestrovskaia tamozhnia” 2011).

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